Underwater Cable – Submarine cables have become an important telecommunications infrastructure in the digital age. The digital technology giant is even willing to spend fantastic amounts of money to improve its services.
Telecommunications is Important in the Digital Age
Recently, for example, Facebook and Google are planning to roll out marine immunity that will connect the regions of Indonesia, Singapore, and North America. Launching APNIC, the first submarine cable was made in 1856. At that time, the Atlantic Telegraph Company made the first trans-Atlantic submarine telegraph cable.
The first submarine cable consisted of seven copper conductor cables wrapped in three layers of gutta-percha material, now known as rubber. Next, the cord was wrapped in hemp paved and an 18-strand helical sheath of iron wire.
Atlantic Telegraph Company
The submarine cable made by the Atlantic Telegraph Company was operated by Isambard Kingdom Brunel, the SS Great Eastern. However, the submarine cable did not last long due to its ability to transmit signals and its level of resistance.
Several years ago, there was the addition of in-line amplifiers (or repeaters) allowing signals to be propagated across greater distances and progressive improvements in signal processing to increase the capacity of these systems.
Increase System Capacity
The telegraph switched to telephones, valves switched to transistors, and polymers replaced rubber, but the basic design remained the same: copper conductors covered with a watertight insulation cover, with steel armor to protect cables in the shallower landing segments.
The first known telegraph system was completed in 1872 in Australia. The system uses a land route to Darwin, and then a short undersea segment to connect to Singapore and from there to India and Britain.
Cable Based Voice Service
The undersea cables run from Australia to the UK are used for telegraphy and the first radio-based transoceanic telephone system. It took decades for electronics advancement to offer cable-based voice services.
Launching Transport Geography, the telegraph system switched to telephone cables with the first transatlantic telephone line (TAT-1) in 1956. However, since their inception, submarine cables faced bandwidth problems, making transoceanic communications expensive and widely used for business or government transactions.
Development of Optical Fiber Technology
The development of fiber optic transmission technology provides a substantial boost in the global telecommunications network setting as it allows for much higher bandwidth and less signal degradation.
The throughput of hundreds of gigabytes of information per second becomes possible. The first transatlantic fiber-optic cable (TAT-8) was installed in 1988. Based on data for 2020, there are only 300 submarine cables operating worldwide with a total length of 1.2 million kilometers of cable.
Copper jacket to provide power
Around the signal bundle is a copper jacket to provide power, then an insulating and waterproof sheath (polyethylene resin). The shallower the depth of the cable segment and the greater the number of commercial shipments, the higher the number of protective elements to allow for accidental snagging of cables.
Usually, the cables are laid on the seabed, but in areas with high marine activity, steel sheathed cables can be laid into special trenches. In special circumstances, the cable can be laid in the trough which is cut.
The wiring technique has not changed significantly. All cables are loaded on the cable-laying vessel, tested end-to-end, and then the ship travels across the cable line in one go.